Apple's rise may have been in the company's slogan from 1997 to 2002: "Think different". Although this is not always announced as a success, it comes from a great vision in the face of increasing competition.

While many of us own Apple products, few know the company's history. When did Apple start and how successful was the company first? When did Apple become popular? And why did Apple collapse almost completely? Let's find out.

When was Apple founded?

Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ron Wayne founded Apple in 1976. It started in the garage at Jobs 'parents' house and Wayne designed his logo by hand.

Wozniak invented the Apple I computer, which consisted solely of a motherboard, a memory and a processor – mainly for hobbyists. No wonder that manufacturers and investors had little interest in the prototypes of the Apple I and Apple II computers. Wayne soon left Apple and exchanged his shares for a check for $ 800.

Photo credit: Ransu / Wikimedia Commons

In 1977, Mark Markkula invested $ 250,000 in the company and held a third of the shares. Apple Computer Inc. was officially founded and the Apple II was introduced to the public at the West Coast Computer Faire in 1977. His VisiCalc – or Visual Calculator – meant that the PC was a hit with companies. The following year, Apple got its first real office.

Apple became a corporation in 1980 and stock prices soared. Some employees suddenly became millionaires and Apple entered the Fortune 500 as one of the fastest growing companies in history.

What led to a decline in Apple computer sales in the early 1980s?

The company soon came across a stumbling block. First and foremost, Apple failed to provide a cost-effective follow-up for Apple II within a reasonable time.

Jobs was particularly impressed with the functionality of the Xerox Alto, especially the graphical user interface (GUI). He was determined to incorporate the best features into Apple's Lisa. The Lisa (1983) ran behind schedule and was so expensive at $ 9,995 that only wealthy companies could afford it.

The Apple III (1980) was a high-end machine with the right price. Fortunately, the Apple IIe (1983) has become a popular household computer for the decade. But they weren't enough.

In the meantime, well-known companies have decided to enter the PC market. IBM has outsourced software to Microsoft, but has not specified operating system exclusivity. The users therefore invested in an established company, and the developers aimed for the successful Microsoft operating system via Apple's seemingly sluggish system.

Bill Gates announced GUIs as the future of PCs, but many years passed until Windows was released (Windows 1.01 was ultimately disappointing). However, competition increased and Microsoft released popular software such as Word and BASIC.

Apple and Microsoft finally reached an agreement in 1985. This ensured that Microsoft continued to produce software for the Mac.

What was Apple's first successful computer?

Apple's Macintosh commercial directed by Ridley Scott was an instant hit. It was shown in cinemas from January 1984 and in the Super Bowl in 1984. It is still revered as one of the best advertisements ever made, although it never aired on television again after a warning letter from the state of George Orwell.

However, this was the worldwide introduction to Apple.

This year, the original Macintosh was called "the computer for the rest of us," while the Apple IIc was also recognized for excellence. The Lisa 2 was released and later renamed Mac XL as Apple's high-end alternative. Sales tripled as the price dropped from around $ 5,495 to $ 4,000. However, CEO John Sculley suggested that Apple would lose money by increasing production, which is why the company discontinued the Mac XL.

Jobs had poached Sculley from his previous position as CEO of PepsiCo. Jobs reportedly said:

"Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life? Or do you want to come with me and change the world? "

The Apple case

Steve Jobs became involved in domestic politics, was stripped of his duties and resigned in 1985. Following claims that he was starting a new company, Apple filed a lawsuit to prevent him from using confidential information about the company in competition. This was finally settled out of court.

Jobs started NeXT Inc. with a computer that is twice as powerful as everything Apple has produced – and $ 1,000 cheaper!

Visited the Apple Museum in Prague which was fantastic! I have to use a real Mac from the 80s! ??

– Dara Hayes (@darahayess), March 31, 2018

The company developed high-end computers at competitive prices using the NeXTSTEP operating system. In 1993, NeXT sold the hardware side of the business to Canon to focus on the operating system. It stayed ahead of the competition by ensuring that the operating system could run on the latest hardware, such as the Intel x86 and Pentium processors.

Microsoft Windows 3.1 (1993) was a huge success and its replacement, Windows 95, became the main competitor to Mac OS.

Motorola and IBM started developing PowerPCs, which were quickly adopted by software developers such as Adobe and Aldus. Apple developed the PowerPC upgrade card and in 1994 the first Apple PowerMacs were released.

Without jobs and Wozniak, Sculley was trusted to run the company. The System 7 operating system introduced color to Macs, while the PowerBook laptop also started. In 1993, there was one of the company's best known mistakes: the Newton MessagePad, a glorified note maker that cost $ 700!

Apple's recovery

By 1996, Apple had begun licensing Mac OS to Motorola and IBM, a move Jobs suggested before leaving the company. PowerPC processors switched to the third generation and looked promising for everyone involved.

Apple then bought NeXT to improve Mac OS and stay ahead of the competition. In 1997, Steve Jobs made an inspiring speech on behalf of Apple, describing the future of Mac OS and other popular Apple products. Microsoft was impressed enough to invest $ 150 million in the company.

Mac OS 8 was seen as a huge success when it was released. The PowerMac G3 came out later that year and the first Apple Store opened.

Jobs was reinstated as CEO and remained so until shortly before his death.

Microsoft agreed to continue developing Microsoft Office software for Mac OS, possibly the linchpin for Apple. Microsoft has even developed a business unit specifically for Apple software that significantly improves the end product of the Mac.

Until 1998, the Apple iMac and the PowerBook G3 were extremely popular, and Apple's profits were enormous. Apple was a force to be reckoned with. The iMac has helped to further consolidate Apple's market position because, in addition to functionality, aesthetics and design are paramount. Soon the iBooks and PowerBook G4s were on the market, as was the wireless innovation from Airport.

Mac OS X (2001) was a giant leap forward for Apple's desktop operating system. Mac OS X built FreeBSD and NeXTSTEP developments. The Unix base appealed to the IT sector, while consumers and businesses alike appreciated the improved user interface. Apple also started opening Apple retail stores in the United States to address poor third-party sales.

When did Apple become a big company?

Another Apple innovation was released in 2001: the iPod. The 5 GB hard drive was marketed with a storage capacity of a thousand songs – an incredible feat for an MP3 player at that time.

In addition, Apple opened the iTunes Music Store in 2003. This came from iTunes, Apple's digital music management software, which was released two years earlier. Apple released a version for Windows in 2003 and it will be released to the rest of the world in the coming years. The iTunes Music Store was an easy way for US citizens to legally buy music online. The name was changed to the iTunes Store in 2006 when videos were also sold.

Apple computers integrated Intel chips in 2005, so that the computers can run Windows. iMacs and MacBook Pro promise that all Apple PC hardware will be based on Intel in the future.

Apple Computer Inc. became Apple Inc. in 2007, reflecting the wider product range.

When did the iPhone and iPad start?

The iPhone 2007 with iPhone OS (later iOS) was a hardware and software revolution. The iPhone combined basic phone functions with the music and video libraries of the iPod.

The iPhone 3G was released the following year, giving users access to the Internet through a 3G data plan. It was also a personal organizer and, thanks to the App Store, was innovative in launching an app-driven internet-enabled smartphone in the world.

Since then, new iPhones have been released annually, including the newly designed 4, 4S, 5 and 2013 5S and 5C with different sizes and prices. The 6 Plus was introduced in 2014: it was a larger device that paved the way for iPhones with larger screen sizes. The 2015 iPhone 6S was designed for those who wanted a smaller smartphone, but Apple soon gave up compact designs. Apple has effectively skipped a ninth model and called its 2018 model the iPhone X.

Apple's voice assistant Siri was introduced in 2011 and was a mainstay of all subsequent models. Regular updates for iOS also introduced new functions. Thanks to hardware upgrades, Apple was able to offer Touch ID in 2013, which allows users to unlock their phones with their fingerprints. Face ID launched the iPhone X in 2017, which allows users to unlock their phones and apps using facial recognition

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Apple launched the iPad in 2010: a tablet with the best functions of the iPhone (minus call capacity) the size of a small laptop. As with the iPhone, new models are released every year.

The iPad Mini was then launched in 2012, while the larger iPad Pro was launched in 2015.

Are Apple running out of ideas?

This is the most common complaint made by Apple. There are only so many ways to reinvent the wheel.

When Steve Jobs died in 2011, many people believed that Apple would fall again after losing its visionary leader. So far, this has proven to be wrong and Apple has continued to be successful. However, some see the company's annual hardware optimizations as a sign of aging. Questions were certainly raised when the Apple Pencil was unveiled.

iPhones got thinner and bigger. Removing a headphone jack forces users to use wireless headphones.

While camera functions have increased, the lenses remain the same size as previous devices. This means that newer devices like the iPhone 11 Pro have unsightly camera blocks that cover part of the back of the device.

Stumbled across a really cool Apple Museum in Prague today.

– WHAT'S IN THERE? (@whatsinside) May 18, 2018

On the other hand, Apple shares remain high. It is a market leader that has innovated in such an amazing way in the past. So are we holding Apple to a higher and unrealistic standard?

How much is Apple worth?

Tim Cook took over from CEO as CEO in 2011. Since then, Apple has been valued at over $ 1 trillion.

The more important question, however, is how much Apple is worth to you. How much have you invested in the company's products? Do you trust that they will protect your data and continue to provide useful services? If this historical look interested you in Apple, find out when is the best time to buy a new Apple product

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